GLOSSARY

APPLICANTS


Basic Definitions Types of Assistance Functions


 

BASIC DEFINITIONS

 

Government, General


The Executive and Legislative Branches and administrative agencies of the Federal Government including intrastate and interstate districts; State regional and district entities State and local government entities; Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, specialized districts and commissions, sponsored organizations; public nonprofit institutions and organizations; and, federally designated Indian tribal governments.


Federal


Departments and Establishments of the Executive and Legislative Branches of the Federal Government which, from its capital in the District of Columbia, are responsible for the enforcement and the fulfillment of public policy, directly administers, legislates, and exercises jurisdiction over matters assigned to it by the Constitution. These departments and establishments are the administering agencies of Federal domestic assistance programs in the form of grants-in-aid, contractual agreements, and other types of financial and non-financial domestic assistance programs providing benefits and services to the American public. The departments and establishments establish and monitor Federal policies, regulations, and procedures governing the administration of Federal funds for domestic assistance programs.


Interstate


Interstate agencies of a geographic area existing between or connecting two or more states and relating usually to boundaries for the control and improvement of rivers for irrigation or water power, conservation of natural resources, penal jurisdiction over boundary rivers and lakes, public utility regulation, development of ports, regional education development, uniformity of legislation.


Intrastate


Intrastate agencies of a geographic area existing within the boundaries of a State acting in concert for such purposes as trade, transportation, communication, and other functions conducted wholly within the boundaries as prescribed by charter of a single State and subject to State regulatory authority.


State


Any of the several States of the United States or the District of Columbia, or any agency or instrumentality of a State excluding the governments of the political subdivisions of a State, but including institutions of higher education and hospitals.


Local

 

A quasi-corporation that regulates and administers matters, chiefly of local concern, that under the general laws or the grant of charters by the State are confided to cities, parishes, counties, towns, townships, villages, school districts, special districts, intrastate districts, councils of governments, sponsor group representative organizations (as defined in 7 CFR 620.2), and other regional or interstate government entity, or agency or instrumentality of a local government, exclusive of institutions of higher education and hospitals.

Includes the following:

 

Locality - A quasi-corporation that regulates and administers matters, chiefly of local concern, that under the general laws or the grant of charters by the State are confided to counties, townships, special districts, or municipalities. Each subdivision is nearly always either a public corporation or a quasi-corporation that may hold property, levy taxes, sue and be sued; and it is responsible for torts from its acts or the neglect of its duties. Its powers are strictly interpreted. For rural local government, the county is the principal division in the South, and the town in New England.


County - The county is the principal local unit for judicial administration and the enforcement of the criminal law of the State; the assessment and collection State and local taxes as assigned by either political or administrative charter; and the selection of polling places, appointment of elected officials, and canvassing of votes; the construction and repair of roads and bridges; indoor and outdoor relief and assistance; and often for the administration of schools and libraries.


City - An urban center chartered as a public corporation with its own system of municipal government and with an extensive municipal administrative apparatus to provide a variety of public services.


Municipality - An incorporated city, town, or borough. The municipal corporation is a subordinate unit of government created under the authority of the State for convenience in administration in a thickly populated area. It has a corporate name, a charter and delegated powers strictly interpreted.
Municipalities have a dual character: a) as an agency of the State with responsibility for the fulfillment of public policy; and b) as a private corporation with proprietary rights and powers and responsibilities.


Town - The principal unit of government in New England except in more populous places that have been incorporated as cities. It is governed by a town meeting and administered by selectmen and other elected officials. It is also a subdivision of a county in some other states.


Township - A unit of local government comprising part of a county, and often a mere subdivision of it, that is governed in some states by boards, commissioners, councils, or trustees; in others, by one elected supervisor.


Sponsored Organization


A public purpose organization, other than an organizational unit of government, that is a beneficiary under a plan or program administered by a State or political subdivision of a State, county, or city and that is subject to approval by a Federal agency (e.g. Economic Development District). Usually organized to work for a specific purpose.


Public Nonprofit Institution/Organization


A publicly owned agency or organization established to perform specialized functions or services for the benefit of all or part of the general public either without charge or at cost making no profits and having no shareholders to receive dividends. Includes institutions of higher education and hospitals.


Other public institution/organization


A public purpose institution /organization performing functions such as taxing, police regulation or particular exertion of the power of eminent domain and shall be the convenience, safety, or welfare of the entire community and not the welfare of a specific individual or class of persons. The distinction between privateand public purpose is determined largely either by usage or by the courts.


Federally Designated Indian Tribal Governments


The governing body or a governmental agency of any Indian Tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community (including any Native village as defined in Section 3 of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, 85 Stat. 688) certified by the Secretary of the Interior as eligible for the special programs and services provided by him through the Bureau of Indian Affairs.


U.S. Territories and Possessions

Any agency or instrumentality of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and Mariana Islands. Included are the political subdivisions of the territories, institutions of higher education, and hospitals.

Non-Government-General

Any group, institution, or individual not of, or pertaining to, agencies or entities of Federal, State, interstate, intrastate, region, district, territories and possessions, city, town, or municipalities, and not of, or pertaining to, groups, institutions, either publically owned or sponsored.


Individual/Family

A single-person or group of persons related by marriage.


Minority group

A racial group regarded as different from the larger group of which it is a part, to include Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans and other non-white persons.


Specialized group

A group of person with commonality of interest within a profession, occupation or interest.


Small business

A business of less than 500 employees, independently owned and not dominant in its field.


Profit organization

A public or private organization designed to deliver services to the public through a business enterprise which is structured and managed for profit.


Private nonprofit institution/organization

Privately owned organizations or institutions which represent community special interest through community service networks, public information, technical assistance, public education and highly specialized groups. Operated exclusively for religious, charitable, scientific, literary or educational purposes such that no part of its earnings is for the benefit of any private shareholder or individual. Includes institutions of higher education and hospitals.


Quasi-public nonprofit institution/organization

A private organization or institution, resembling a public entity, engaged in rendering essential services to the public and therefore given special privileges such as those given public institutions/organizations.


Other private institution/organizations

A privately owned institution or organization which operates for profit and disburses dividends to shareholders.


Anyone/general public

Any person(s), governmental or nongovernment, private citizen, individual residents of the United States or of Indian Tribal governments, Territories and possessions of the U.S.


Native American Organization

Groups of Indians to include Urban Indian groups, cooperatives, partnerships, and associations. Also includes Indians as a minority group.

 

TYPES OF ASSISTANCE

 

Formula Grants

Allocations of money to States or their subdivisions in accordance with a distribution formula prescribed by law or administrative regulation, for activities of a continuing nature not confined to a specific program.

 

Project Grants

The funding, for fixed or known periods, of specific projects or the delivery of specific services or products without liability for damages for failure to perform. Project grants include fellowships, scholarships, research grants, training grants, traineeships, experimental and demonstration grants, evaluation grants, planning grants, technical assistance grants, survey grants, construction grants, and unsolicited contractual agreements.

 

Direct Payments for a Specified Use

Financial assistance provided directly to individuals, private firms, and other private institutions to encourage or subsidize a particular activity by conditioning the receipt of the on a particular performance by the recipient. This does not include solicited contracts for the procurement of goods and services for the Federal government.

 

Direct Payments with Unrestricted Use

Financial assistance provided directly to beneficiaries who satisfy eligibility requirements with no restrictions imposed on the recipient as to how the money is spent. Included are payments under retirement, pension, and compensation programs.

 

Direct Loans

Financial assistance provided through the lending of Federal monies for a specific period of time, with a reasonable expectation of repayment. Such loans may or may not require the payment of interest.

 

Guaranteed/Insured Loans

Programs in which the Federal Government makes an arrangement to indemnify a lender against all or part of all of any defaults by those responsible for the repayment of loans.

 

Insurance

Financial assistance provided to assure reimbursement for losses sustained under specified conditions. Coverage may be provided directly by the Federal Government or through private carriers and may or may not involve the payment of premiums.

 

Sale, Exchange, or Donation of Property or Goods

Programs that provide for the sale, exchange, or donation of Federal real property, personal property, commodities, and other goods including land, buildings, equipment, food, and drugs. This does not include the loan of, use of, or access to Federal facilities or property.

 

Use of Property, Facilities, or Equipment

Programs that provide for the loan of, use of, or access to Federal facilities or property wherein the federally owned facilities or property do not remain in the possession of the recipient of the assistance.

 

Provision of Specialized Services

Programs that provide Federal personnel to directly perform certain tasks for the benefit of communities or individuals. These services may be performed in conjunction with non-Federal personnel, but they involve more than consultation, advice, or counseling.

 

Advisory Services and Counseling

Programs that provide Federal specialists to consult, advise, or counsel communities or individuals including conferences, workshops, or personal contacts. This may involve the use of published information, but only in a secondary capacity.

 

Dissemination of Technical Information

Programs that provide for the publication and distribution of information or data of a specialized technical nature, frequently through clearinghouses or libraries. This does not include conventional public information services designed for general public consumption.

 

Training

Programs that provide instructional activities conducted directly by a Federal agency for individuals not employed by the Federal Government.

 

Investigation of Complaints

Federal administrative agency activities that are initiated in response to requests, either formal or informal, to examine or investigate claims of violations of Federal statutes, policy, or procedure. Such claims must come from outside the Federal Government.

 

Federal Employment

Programs that reflect the government-wide resposibilities of the Office of Personnel Management in the recruitment and hiring of Federal civilian agency personnel.

 

FUNCTIONS

 

Agriculture Employment, Labor, and Training  Information and Statistics
Business and Commerce Energy Law, Justice, and Legal Services
Community Development Environmental Quality Natural Resources
Consumer Protection Food and Nutrition Regional Development
Cultural Affairs Health Science and Technology
Disaster Prevention and Relief Housing Transportation
Education Income Security and Social Services  

AGRICULTURE

 

Resource Conservation and Development

The conservation and development of public and private lands, soil, water, timber, and other natural resources, to practice long range preservation of the environment, to insure a continued supply of the necessary food and fiber for a strong and healthful people and economy, and to increase forest production.

 

Production and Operations

Promotes improved management and production techniques and operating costs for farming and ranching.

 

Marketing

The establishment, improvement, and maintenance of orderly marketing conditions for the distribution, promotion, and sale of certain agricultural commodities and products.

 

Research and Development

To conduct, assist, encourage, and promote investigations and experimentations to determine the most efficient and practical means, methods, and processes for the handling and storing of agricultural commodities and products.

 

Technical Assistance, Information, and Services

Increasing the effectiveness and problem-solving capability for such areas as compliance with Federal administrative or programmatic requirements; carrying out specific project objectives; and broadening staff capabilities into additional functional areas. The provision of advice for the solution of specific agricultural related problems.

 

Forestry

The protection, management, and development of timber growing and harvesting, treeplanting, and processing and marketing of forest products. Also the promotion and achievement of a pattern of natural resource uses; improvement of the open space environment; encouragement of the growth and development of forestry-based enterprises that respond to changing needs.

 

Stabilization and Conservation Service

The stabilization of agricultural prices which includes the cost of acquisition and storage of agricultural commodity stockpiles (wheat, corn, cotton, peanuts, rice, tobacco, sugar, milk, wool, and mohair) and provides for voluntary production adjustment. Promotes the stabilization of the production and prices of specific commodities by attracting production of such commodities needed to meet domestic and foreign demand and by protecting incomes of farmers and assuring adequate supplies at fair and reasonable prices.

 

BUSINESS AND COMMERCE

 

Small Business

The establishment, operation, and revitalization of small businesses that are independently owned and operated and are not dominant in their field. Promotes the development and growth of small businesses and industrial concerns by providing financial and technical assistance.

 

Economic Development

Provisions for economic growth in areas of high unemployment or underemployment or general conditions of economic distress. This includes financial and technical assistance needed to further the development of public facilities and private enterprises and to maintain business and industrial operations.

 

Economic Injury and Natural Disaster

Aid to businesses or industries and communities having suffered losses due to man-made, natural, or economic crises such as the closing or reduction-in-force of local Federal facilities.

 

Commercial Fisheries

Provides assistance to persons who have engaged in collectively catching, producing, preparing for market, processing, handling, and marketing in interstate and foreign commerce all commercial products of aquatic life in both fresh and salt water. Protects commercial fish resources through conservation assistance studies and experiments.

 

Maritime

Promotes the domestic and foreign commerce of the United States through financial and technical assistance towards the construction and development of merchant marine ships, ports, transportation systems, and other related items. Promotes the continued expertise of merchant marine crews through financial assistance for State and merchant marine schools and other special services.

 

International

To initiate and increase export activities; provides adjustment assistance to firms and communities adversely affected by increased imports; and provides aid to U.S. businesses to sell their goods in international markets by providing commercial, economic, and marketing information on exporting prospects and methods of marketing goods.

 

Statistics

The collection, tabulation, and publication of economic and commercial data about the economy as it relates to business and industrial concerns. These data are used generally in the development and evaluation of economic and social programs.

 

Special Technical Services

Promotes the growth and development of commerce and industries through development and management assistance, licensing services, surveys, weights and measurement assistance, and other types of assistance.

 

Minority Business Enterprises

Financial, managerial, and technical assistance to businesses owned or controlled by one or more socially or economically disadvantaged persons.

 

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

 

Planning and Research

Studies or experimentation that focus on community development; to develop designs and establish means to accomplish effective service delivery.

 

Construction, Renewal, and Operations

The construction, improvement (remodeling or rehabilitation), or operation of structures intended for public use; area development assistance to governmental entities for the purpose of attracting private industry; and, assistance for plant expansion or relocation and/or acquisition.

 

Historical Preservation

The preservation of historic properties through the building, improving, or obtaining of historic structures or lands and the development of publications, historic programs, archives, historic surveys, collections, and museums.

 

Rural Community Development

Provides assistance to essential community facilities for the purpose of improving or developing business industry, and creating employment to improve the economic and environmental climate in rural communities.

 

Recreation

The construction and development of structures, facilities, and natural resources for use by the general public. These facilities may include playgrounds, campgrounds, boating, fishing, swimming, hiking, parks, and sightseeing facilities.

 

Site Acquisition

The purchase, lease, donation, exchange, or other use, however temporary, of real property that is needed for the development and construction of business or industrial concerns.

 

Indian Action Services

Provides technical assistance to individual Indians and Indian tribes through the promotion and development of natural resources; provides financial assistance to achieve economic and social self-sufficiency and determination through the administration and participation of all programs.

 

Federal Surplus Property

The Federal government sells, exchanges, or donates federally owned real and personal property, including land, commodities, buildings, equipment, food, and drugs no longer needed by the government.

 

Technical Assistance and Services

The provision of advisory services, technical information, and training for the solution of problems relating to community development.

 

Land Acquisition

The purchase, lease, donation, exchange, or use, however temporary, of real property. The term land is held to be synonymous with the terms real estate and real property and includes lands, tenements, and hereditaments. The use of such land includes residential building site development, recreation, airports, public works, mineral leases, conservation efforts, and historic preservation.

 

Fire Protection

The prevention of, protection from, and information concerning fires, and assistance before, during, and after a natural or man-made fire occurs, including relief measures. Also to shield human and natural resources, financial investments, and environmental quality from losses due to fire.

 

 

CONSUMER PROTECTION

 

Regulation, Inspection, and Enforcement

The establishment and enforcement of minimum standards of quality, safety, or wholesomeness (hygiene) for consumer goods through a program of inspection and monitoring. This includes mandatory product safety standards to reduce risks to consumers.

 

Complaint Investigation

The investigation of charges against indi- viduals, businesses, and industrial concerns of regulation abuse or intentional misrepresentation of products or services.

 

Information and Educational Services

The collection and dissemination of technical information and data to enable consumers to evaluate the comparative safety of products or services.

 

 

CULTURAL AFFAIRS

 

Promotion of the Arts

To support and develop the arts at the local, regional, State, and national levels. Support and development of the arts to include: architectural and environmental arts, crafts, dance, education, expansion arts, folk arts, literature, museums, music, media arts (film, radio, and TV), theatre, and the visual arts.

 

Promotion of the Humanities

To support and develop the humanities to include, but not limited to, the study of linguistics, literature, history, jurisprudence, philosophy, archeology; the history, criticism, theory, and practice of the arts; those aspects of the social sciences that have humanistic content and employ humanistic methods; and the study and application of the humanities to the environment.

 

DISASTER PREVENTION AND RELIEF

 

Emergency Preparedness, Civil Defense

Preparation against catastrophic natural phenomena or man-made disasters; prediction of destructive natural phenomena; provision of hazard insurance in regions of recurrent disasters; and the provision of emergency funds for the replacement and maintenance of public facilities, private residences, and business affected by disasters of war and the procurement of emergency equipment needed to increase civil readiness for natural or man-made disasters.

 

Flood Prevention and Control

The construction of structures or the development of techniques to predict floods, to reduce the possibility of a flood, or to restrain flood waters in the event of a flood. Included are levees, dams, reservoirs, dikes, and erosion control projects.

 

Emergency Health Services

The provision of emergency medical care facilities, supplies, personnel, and rescue services in time of man- or natural disaster, and the development, improvement, expansion, and integration of emergency medical services systems to respond to sudden unexpected occurences that require immediate remedial action.

 

Disaster Relief

Assistance to communities for economic, physical, and product disaster that requires immediate remedial action; to meet immediate emergency needs resuting from a man-made or natural disaster.

 

EDUCATION

 

Dental Education and Training

Provides support to institutions and an accredited dental program for individuals who are training for a career in the dental profession.

 

Education Equipment and Resources

Assistance concerned with the acquisition of necessary materials and equipment for educational use.

 

Educational Facilities

Activities concerned with the acquisition of land and buildings; building remodeling, construction and additions; initial installation or extension of service systems and other built-in equipment; and improvements to sites.

 

Elementary and Secondary

Basic education services for children and youth enrolled in kindergarten through high school. Provides educational opportunities to adults without elementary or secondary education and to those deprived of educational opportunities.

 

General Research and Evaluation

The development and implementation of special programs and projects to aid the sciences, medicine, energy, environment and health; the development of education-related services, support for studies or experimentation having an education- related theme, and whose results may or may not have immediate practical use.

 

Handicapped Education

Educational research and development services, and special facilities and equipment for the education and training of handicapped persons to include:educationally deprived children, preschool and school programs, personnel preparation, career education, the severely handicapped, rehabilitation training, developmental disabilities, the blind, deaf and physically handicapped. Specific programs are available for educational development and research, loans and specialized services.

 

Health Education and Training

Provides support to institutions involved with health care education, and individuals who are training for a career in the health care professions to serve as a teacher, administrator or practitioner.

 

Higher Education, General

Educational services generally designed for either undergraduate/graduate level college education or other highly specialized academic/applied educational fields to include: scholarships and grants for individuals, institutions, States, and communities meeting specific eligibility requirements.

 

Indian Education

To improve educational opportunities for Indian adults and children on or near Indian reservations, to raise their educational status to the highest possible levels, and to encourage their participation in educational development.

 

Libraries and Technical Information Services

The operation, administration, staffing, development, or improvement of services for a school, college, public, and special libraries, including clearinghouses and information exchange.

 

Medical Education and Training

Provides support to institutions having an accredited medical program and individuals who are training for a career in the medical profession.

 

Nuclear Education and Training

Provides support to institutions involved with nuclear energy education, and individuals who are training for a career in nuclear energy.

 

Nursing Education

Provides support to institutions having an accredited nursing program and individuals who are training for a career in the nursing profession.

 

Resource Development and Support, Elementary & Secondary Education

The design of course content or the development of specific materials for use in elementary and secondary educational institutions to include staffing, instruction, professional services, demonstration, studies, testing, evaluation, needs assessment and consultation.

 

Resource Development and Support, General and Special Interest Organizations

The design of course content or the development of specific materials for use in general education situations and by special interest organizations. Support includes staffing, instruction, professional services, demonstration, studies, testing, evaluation, needs assessment, and consultation.

 

Resource Development and Support, Higher Education

The design of course content or the development of specific materials for use in an institution of higher education to include staffing, instruction, professional services, demonstrations, studies, testing, evaluation, needs assessment and consultation.

 

Resource Development and Support, Land and Equipment

The development of the physical resources of education; i.e. land and equipment.

 

Resource Development and Support, School Aid

To focus on the reduction of minority group isolation in education through the development of appropriate educational resources.

 

Resource Development and Support, Sciences

The design of course content or the development of specific materials for use in science at academic insstitutions. Support includes staffing, instruction, professional sevices, demonstration, studies, testing, evaluation, needs assessment, and consultation.

 

Resource Development and Support, Student Financial Aid

Educational grants to states and individuals.

 

Resource Development and Support, Vocational Education and Handicapped Education

Programs to provide assistance to the needs of the handicapped and in the development of vocational education programs.

 

Teacher Training

Provides support to institutions and individuals for training to prepare for entrance into the teaching profession and serve as either an instructor or an administrator.

 

Vocational Development

To provide training for individuals in need of and eligible for specialized training provisions, specialized housing and/or instructors with unique training related to a specific vocational area. Designed for specific target groups including the unskilled and the disadvantaged.

 

EMPLOYMENT, LABOR, AND TRAINING

 

Planning, Research, and Demonstration

The provision of funds and information materials necessary in developing the process by which employment related services may be  implemented. The establishment, improvement, or expansion of employment services, innovative programs, and experimental models. Activities which ultimately benefit job seeking individuals, and which may include: planning, development, and provision or expansion of the delivery of employment-related services to a specified community or area; and outreach, intake, counseling, referral and placement services to individuals.

 

Program Development

The establishment, improvement, or expansion of employment services, innovative programs, and experimental models.

 

Job Training, Employment

Development and improvement of nationwide work and training programs and delivery systems which will provide work training, work experience and public service employment opportunities, class room instruction in occupational skills and other job related training by public and private employers. The development, expansion and improvement of apprenticeship and other forms of industrial training.

 

Federal Employment

Provides for the filling of U.S. Government job vacancies by U.S. citizens 18 years or older. Includes employment for veterans and handicapped persons, summer and part-time employment for disadvantaged youths 16-21, summer employment for high school and college students with precise skills, and graduate students with degrees in public management. Includes specialized and technical services to State and local governments in recruiting, staffing, and personnel management; and training for State and local employees and Indian Tribal governments, and intergovernmental mobility of Federal, State and local employees.

 

Bonding and Certification

To assist employers in certifying the protection of the interests and jobs of the American worker; also provides for specialized services in areas where tangible evidence is needed to show exemplary character, conduct, and activities.

 

Equal Employment Opportunity - To end discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in hiring, promotion, firing, wages, testing, training, apprenticeship, and all other conditions of employment and to promote voluntary action in programs by employers, unions, and commuinity organizations to make equal employment opportunity an actuality.

 

Assistance and Services for the Unemployed

To provide a permanent income for those workers disabled due to a job related illness or injury; to provide a temporary income for those unemployed due to a reduction in the work force; and to provide temporary Public service jobs, and technical assistance and services to States and localities with a high unemployment rate.

 

Assistance to State and Local Governments

Provides all forms of financial and nonfinancial assistance to States and communities for use in alleviating unemployment and its negative effects, and for combatting conditions which have developed from general economic decline.

 

Statistical

To provide to the public compiled data concerning the employment status of minorities, cost of living, the labor force, industrial productivity, unemployment and employment data and other indices of the Nation's economic state.

 

Labor Management Services

To promote the full flow of commerce, to prescribe the legitimate rights of both employees and employers in their relations effecting commerce, to provide orderly and peaceful procedures for preventing the interference with the legitimate rights of others, to protect the rights of individual employees in their relations with Labor organizations whose activities affect commerce, to define and precribe practices on the part of labor and management which affect commerce and are inimical to the general welfare, and to protect the rights of the public in connection with labor disputes affecting commerce.

 

Facilities, Planning, Construction, and Equipment

The acquisition of lands and buildings; remodeling and construction of and additions to buildings; initial installations or expansion of service systems and other built-in equipment; improvement to sites; and acquisition of materials and equipment for employment related activities.

 

ENERGY

 

Conservation

To encourage the prudent useof energy resources, to improve energy efficiency and system utilization and reduce energy consumption in the transportation industry, public and private buildings, and agricultural and industrial process heating.

 

Research and Development

Studies or experimentation having an energy related theme and whose results may or may not have immediate practical use. R and D projects involving energy storage, electric energy systems, and improved energy conservation efficiency; the use of multipurpose laboratories, education and training for basic and applied research.

 

Education and Training

Provides educational and training opportunities in energy or energy related subjects, in order to increase the number of energy professionals and paraprofessionals, or to expand and update their present knowledge.

 

Facilities and Equipment

Activities concerned with remodeling and construction of and additions to buildings; initial installations or extension of service systems and other built-in energy-related activities.

 

Specialized Technical Services

To provision of funds and information materials necessary in developing the process by which energy-related services may be implemented.

 

General Information Services

The dissemination of energy related information and public training through information services, libraries, seminars, films, and other means.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

 

Water Pollution Control

The prevention of flooding, beach erosion, and water contamination, and the restoration of polluted bodies of water.

 

Air Pollution Control

The control and reduction of air and air-related pollution.

 

Solid Waste Management

The collection, storage, treatment, utilization, processing, or final disposal of garbage, refuse, and other discarded solid materials including solid waste materials resulting from industrial, commercial, and agricultural operations, and from community activities. Not included are solids or dissolved material in domestic sewage or other significant pollutants in water resources, such as silt, dissolved materials in irrigation - return flows or other common water pollutants.

 

Pesticides Control

The development of measures to assure the safe administration of toxic substances used in plant and animal disease prevention and treatment; of technical information on pesticides research and use for distribution to the public; of enforcement measures for pesticides use; and of compensation measures for specific industries suffering a loss from pesticides contamination.

 

Radiation Control

The safe and environmentally sound control and handling of radiological systems and disposal of radioactive wastes.

 

Research, Education, Training

The examination of and instruction in methods of maintaining and improving environmental conditions; the study of the environmental diseases and disorders; and the development of safe means for managing and controlling environmental and man-made refuse.

 

FOOD AND NUTRITION

 

Food and Nutrition for Children

To safeguard the health and well-being of children and to encourage the domestic consumption of agricultural and other foods; provides assistance to states, through grants-in-aid and other means, to meet more effectively the nutritional needs of children, as it is affected by diet, and may include diet counseling, providing food and dietary supplements and information.

 

Food and Nutrition for Individuals and Families

To safeguard the health and well-being of both individuals and families, and to encourage the domestic consumption of agricultural and other foods; provide assistance to States, through grants-in-aid and other means, to meet more effectively the nutritional needs of both individuals and families as it is affected by diets of women, infants, children, aging, those in special geographic areas and may include providing food and dietary supplements and dietary information.

 

Food Inspection

To protect the consumer from improperly grown/prepared foods.

 

Research

To identify and/or improve the knowledge and/or use of food products.

 

HEALTH

 

Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health, General

Assistance to general mental health and chemical dependency issues and programs.

 

Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health, Law Enforcement

Programs concerned with the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs including prescription and non- prescription legal and illegal uses.

 

Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health, Planning

The planning and development of mental health programs, including those concerned with the use and abuse of alcoholism and drugs.

 

Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health, Research

Research programs for mental health and chemical dependency issues and programs.

 

Communicable Diseases

Disease control and investigations to protect the nation against disease and to reduce disease conditions of a national significance. To assist State and local health authorities in the control, investigation and evaluation of communicable diseases and preventable health conditions.

 

Education and Training

Instruction of students or personnel in research, techniques or practices pertinent to the delivery of health services. Provide support for additional or updated training of professionals, paraprofessionals, or nonprofessionals working in a given health field.

 

Facility Loans and Insurance

To provide either loans or insurance to cover the expense of health facility construction.

 

Planning and Construction

Activities concerned with the acquisition of land and buildings; remodeling and construction of and additions to buildings; initial installation or extension of service systems and other built-in equipment; improvements to sites; and acquisition of materials and equipment for health-related activities.

 

General Health and Medical Services

To provide or coordinate direct health services to the general public or to persons with special eligibility characteristics or those living within a specific geographic region.

 

Health Research, General

Controlled studies or experiments of limited durations having a medical or health-related theme and whose results may or may not have immediate practical use. Such research may result in the development, and improvement of health-related service delivery systems, innovative programs, and experimental modes.

 

Health Services Planning and Technical Assistance

Assistance, information and materials necessary in planning and developing the delivery of health-related services.

 

Indian Health

Comprehensive health services for eligible American Indians and Alaska Natives, providing hospital and medical care services and preventive and rehabilitative health services; develops innovative health services delivery systems; conducts tuberculosis and other communicable disease control activities; encourages and assists in the development of water supply and waste disposal systems; and provides training for health personnel.

 

Libraries, Information, and Educational Services

The dissemination of a variety of materials through a program of communications, public information, and educational activities serving both the professional health community and the general public.

 

Maternity, Infants, and Children

Planning for children, mothers, families and their general welfare. Included are counseling and support programs for the handicapped, family planning, child health and development, mental health and child abuse.

 

Mental Health

To research, develop and deliver services involving the process of restoring physical, mental and social well-being through counseling, treatment and training for persons with physical and mental dysfunctions.

 

Occupational Health

To assure safe and healthful working conditions for all working people thru the development and promulgation of occupational safety and health standards, developing and issuing regulations, conducting investigations and inspections to determine the status of compliance with safety and health standards and regulations.

 

Physical Fitness

The develoment, implementation, and improvement of physical and mental fitness programs for Americans of all ages. This is accomplished through the provision of professional consultation, technical assistance, publications, and public information programs.

 

Prevention and Control

To prevent and control disease, prolong life, and promote physical and mental health. Includes the study of the cause and transfer of diseases, the predisposing factors which increase an individual's vulnerability, and the determining factors which initiate or precipitate a disease process or disabling condition.

 

Program Development

The establishment, improvement, or expansion of health, mental health, and health-related service delivery system, innovative programs, and experimental models.

 

Specialized Health Research and Training

Specialized research in health and manpower in particular specified areas of the health sciences and related fields.

 

Veterans Health

Health planning and service delivery for veterans who may be handicapped, aged, inpatients, outpatients, chemical dependent or requiring domiciliary care.

 

HOUSING

 

Property and Mortgage Insurance

Property insurance which protects an owner or lessor against loss or damage due to a natural or man-made disaster. Mortgages to protect against financial loss due to nonpayment on the part of the mortgage.

 

Homebuying, Homeownership

To enable specific target groups, including both profit and nonprofit entities, to purchase new or used single or multi-family dwellings (normally for use as a principal residence by the purchaser). Assistance is primarily in the form of guarantees to the lender for specific loans.

 

Home Improvements

Repair, improvement, or rehabilitation of housing structures. Maintenance, repair, upgrading, renovation, and modernization of single or multi-unit public housing to enable it to be used as public housing, or to be sold to private investors for use as low or moderate income housing.

 

Cooperatives, Rental

Monies to lessors and mortgagers to make up the difference between the charge for the shelter and the amount the lessees, tenants, or mortgagers can afford to pay.

 

Rural Housing

Assistance to families of low and moderate income for housing located in open country and small rural communities and towns. Assistance can be obtained to build, buy, and repair needed homes and essential farm buildings and to buy and improve building sites.

 

Multifamily

A dwelling designed for habitation by two or more families. Usually contains five or more units (minimum). Multifamily housing may include any form of rental housing such as apartment complexes, duplexes and/or tenants.

 

Experimental and Developmental Projects

The development of new subdivisions, the implementation of housing to incorporate new energy saving devices or new construction concepts.

 

Indian Housing

Assistance targeted for Native Americans and their communities to alleviate poor sanitation installations/methods and housing. To provide home ownership for low income families, to ensure equal housing and credit opportunity and to promote access to economic development assistance.

 

Construction, Rehabilitation

The development and construction of new single or multi-unit housing and housing sites; and the rehabilitation of existing housing structures.

 

Planning

Planning which concerns non-health-care related, new institutional, residential structures which are to be the primary residence of the occupants; also planning which conerns the land and facilities necessary for these structures. Included are single family houses, duplexes, row houses, apartments, condominiums, and mobile homes.

 

Land Acquisition

The purchase, lease, donation, exchange of non-constitutional structure.

 

Site Preparation for Housing

Provision of the necessities concomitant with housing such as water, sewage and power utility hookups, landscape engineering, and illumination and pavement of roads and walkways.

 

INCOME SECURITY AND SOCIAL SERVICES

 

Disabled and Handicapped Services

Comprehensive services to persons confined to their homes due to handicaps or disabilities. To ensure the delivery of essential services through full and special consideration of the needs of the handicapped. Programs include mental retardation, crippled children, deaf, veterans, developmental disabilities, special equipment.

 

Disabled Veterans

Assistance and services designed especially for the disabled veteran.

 

Emergency and Crisis Assistance

A sudden, unexpected occurrence of a set of circumstances that cause adverse effects on the physical or mental well-being of an individual or community, which requires immediate remedial action. Such assistance includes, but is not limited to, food, clothing, shelter, financial grants, counseling, and referral services such as hotlines.

 

Families and Child Welfare Services

Programs designed for the benefit of families and children which may include financial support to states for services to reduce infant mortality and improve the health of mothers and children; to reduce the incidence of mental retardation and other handicapping conditions; to promote the physical, mental, and dental health of children and youth; to provide medical and related services to crippled children; and to establish regional centers to provide services to deaf/blind children, educational and medical advice concerning family planning, the health of mothers and children, child support enforcement, and specialized programs.

 

Indian Services

The delivery of essential services to Native Americans, and to which full and special consideration of the needs of the Native Americans is involved in the program planning to include: child welfare, employment, training and general assistance.

 

Information and Referral Services

A method of linking people in need of services to the appropriate resources.

 

Legal and Advocacy Services

The protection of rights under the law or of persons unable to act for themselves; and the enforcement of laws or regulations. These include but are not limited to: civil rights, employment rights, and legal aid.

 

Nutrition

Deals with health as it is affected by diet, and may include diet counseling, providing food and dietary supplements, and dietary information.

 

Old Age Assistance

Assistance designed for the elderly, to include but not limited to: information, facilities, employment, consultation, volunteerism, and specialized programs.

 

Prevention

Activities that seek to prevent the deterioration of the quality of life of an individual or community which may include counseling, information dissemination, referral services and financial assistance.

 

Public Assistance

To improve the capability of eligible families and individuals to achieve self- support, to improve the social functioning of individuals, to secure appropriate institutionalization and deinstitutionalization for eligible individuals, and to improve employment potential for both the unemployed and the underemployed or those in need of training.

 

Refugee, Alien Services

The delivery of essential services to aliens, and to which full and special consideration of the needs of aliens is involved in the program planning to include: refugee assistance, citizenship, and certification programs.

 

Research, Demonstration

A controlled activity of limited duration which is planned and executed to demonstrate what inputs, processes, and outcomes may be expected by those involved in the delivery of social services and provides support for studies or experimentation which focuses on social services and whose results may or may not have immediate practical use.

 

Social Security and Insurance

Provides services and direct payments to persons eligible for medicare, social security disability, retirement and special benefits, pensions, compensations, veterans insurance and pensions and survivors insurance.

 

Specialized Family and Child Welfare Services

Programs designed for particular family groups to benefit their families and children.

 

Specialized Services

Assistance and services designed for the general public, to include: employment, volunteerism, physical fitness programs, the study of antipoverty issues, and other specialized functions.

 

Training Assistance

Instruction and on-the-job training for students, personnel, prospective employees and public safety officers in the human services field; and in the techniques and practices pertinent to the delivery of social services.

 

Veterans Services

Assistance and services designed for veterans, to include: rehabilitation, equipment, housing, employment, cemeteries, pensions, education and special assistance programs.

 

Youth Services

The delivery of essential services to American youth, and to which full and special consideration of the needs of American youth is involved in the program planning to include: education, training, employment, volunteerism and specialized programs.

 

INFORMATION AND STATISTICS

 

Census Data

Collects and publishes statistical data and analysis at various levels of government and political subdivisions in areas such as agriculture, manufacturing, business population and housing. Such services include user services, special tabulations and personal census search.

 

General Information

Provides facts or statistics of a specific or unique nature. Some areas included are: soil survey, nautical charts, weights and measures, civil defense, citizenship, crime, cost of living data, Federal information, consumer information, air pollution control, commodity futures and patent licenses.

 

Libraries, Clearinghouses, Archives

Provides information resources usually for special services, purposes, subject areas.

 

Library of Congress and Smithsonian Services

Designed for highly specialized unique types of information such as braille, photo duplication, congressional publications, and research, scientific and technological referral services, museums and travel exhibitions.

 

LAW, JUSTICE, AND LEGAL SERVICES

 

Law Enforcement, Planning and Operation

Assistance provided to State and local governments to strengthen and improve law enforcement and criminal justice emcompassing activities pertaining to crime prevention, control, or reduction of the enforcement of the criminal law.

 

Law Enforcement, Research, Education, Training

The training and education of students or personnel in research, techniques, or practices pertinent to the delivery of law enforcement services. Provides resources for research and evaluation leading to development and improvement of law enforcement services.

 

Law Enforcement, Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs

Promotes the enforcement of controlled substances laws and regulations through technical assistance, training, research, analysis, and information provided to States and localities.

 

Law Enforcement, Crime Analysis and Data

Promotes the accurate analysis of criminal actions and supplies data and technical assistance for planning and problem solving for criminal justice related themes. Provides laboratory analysis, technical assistance, and information to State and local police, correction agencies, courts, criminal justice planners and others.

 

Legal Services, General Services

Assistance for endorsing Federal civil rights laws which prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin in he area of voting, education, employment, and housing, in the use of public facilities and public accomodations, and in the administration of federally assisted programs.

 

Legal Services, Employment Rights

Provides provisions for the enforcing of laws prohibiting discrimination in such areas as voting, employment and housing; and the legal protection of persons unable to act for themselves.

 

Legal Services, Labor-Management Relations

To prescribe the legitimate rights of both employees and employers in their relations affecting commerce, to provide orderly and peaceful procedures for preventing interference with the legitimate rights of others, to protect the rights of individual employees in their relations with labor organizations whose activities affect commerce, to define and prescribe practices on the part of labor and management which affect commerce and are inimical to the general welfare, and to protect the rights of the public in connection with labor disputes affecting commerce.

 

Legal Services, Housing Rights

To provide access to legal services for housing opportunities, freedom from discrimination, denial of civil rights and denial of voting right.

 

Legal Services, Claims Against Foreign Governments

Assistance in obtaining settlements of all legally valid claims of nationals of the United States against foreign governments.

 

NATURAL RESOURCES

 

Mineral Research

Research and training in mining and mineral resource areas having due regard for the protection and conservation of the environment.

 

Water Conservation and Research

Protects and preserves water resources through controlled studies or experiments of a limited duration having as their subject of study water conservation and related themes. Promotes the development of protective water management techniques and policies and the careful utilization of water resources.

 

Community Water Supply Services

The installation, expansion, development, and construction of distribution, storage, and pumping facilities that are intended for public and community use.

 

Community Sewage Treatment Assistance

The installation, expansion, development, and construction of facilities and structures for use in collection, handling, changing, and recycling of community sewage. Included are sewer systems, sewage retention depots, and sewage treatment plants.

 

Wildlife Research and Preservation

The acquisition, improvement, and operation of recreational lands and facilities including fish and wildlife parks. Preservation of historic areas is also included in this function.

 

Land Conservation

To prevent or arrest the deterioration of lands; and to preserve and improve the quality of land areas.

 

Recreation

The construction and development of structures, facilities, and natural resources for use by the general public. These facilities may include playgrounds, campgrounds, boating, fishing, swimming, hiking, parks, and sightseeing facilities.

 

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

 

Economic Development

The development of potentialities for regional economic growth; the evaluation of developmental needs and priorities through planning investigations, studies, demonstration projects, and training programs.

 

Planning and Technical Assistance

To research, develop, and carry out action programs for economic progress; to study and analyze local and regional problems and devise means to utilize natural and human resources; and, to increase the effectiveness and problem-solving capability of the region.

 

Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation and Facilities Construction

Provisions by regions to supplement a portion of the local share for the acquisition or rehabilitation or construction or equipping of facilities in communities that cannot supply the matching share.

 

Transportation

The planning, purchase of equipment, construction, and operation of regional transportation networks.

 

Energy

The development of a regional strategy to demonstrate innovative methods of producing energy, conserving energy, and converting to alternative energy sources; and the economic and environmental impact therefrom.

 

Housing

To stimulate housing construction and rehabilitation within a region.

 

Education

To provide expanded opportunities to obtain vocational and technical training and provide assistance for planning, constructing, and operating vocational and technical education projects.

 

Health and Nutrition

The planning, construction, equipment, and operation of multicounty demonstration health and nutrition projects.

 

Resources and Development

Promote the use, conservation, and development of all resources to improve the economic and social well-being of the people of the region.

 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

 

Research, General

Studies or investigations that contribute to public understanding and resolution of significant problems, and increase understanding of interactions between scientific enterprises and society.

 

Research, Specialized

Provisions to increase the store of specialized scientific knowledge and enhance understanding of problems in a wide variety of science-related disciplines.

 

Information and Technical Service

Provides scientific facts, statistics, and technical services on the physical and chemical basis of life processes as well as on new initiatives.

 

TRANSPORTATION

 

Urban Mass Transit

The planning, development, and operation of new and improved mass transit systems, covering facilities, equipment, techniques, and methods.

 

Highways, Public Roads, and Bridges

The construction, improvement, and maintenance of primary, secondary, and urban roads, highways, and bridges; traffic control and protection; and upkeep necessary to insure safe driving conditions.

 

Rail Transportation

To promote, support, and determine national, regional, and local rail services, including freight and passenger services. The development, operation, and improvement of safe rail systems and rail vehicles for use as public and industrial transportation.

 

Air Transportation

Promotes the safe and efficient utilization of air transportation for the public and for freight; also assistance for planning, development, and maintenance of nationwide systems of public airports, commercial air routes, and aviation safety.

 

Water Navigation

The establishment and maintenance of safe, efficient, and effective navigable waters and water transportation through the enforcement of navigation laws and the inspection of waterways and commercial passenger-carrying vessels.